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England- 1642 to 1689

anonymous on 11. Feb, 2019 — Lang: Dansk

England- 1642 to 1689
  • Transcript


    His son, Richard... Not so much.

    So... You guys like vegan smoothies?

    The year is 1642. Charles I has become heavily resented as the king of England. The Long Parliament, having originally convened in 1640, resents Charles for his poor leadership and exercisement of absolute power. Parliament has declared that any bills it passes do not require the monarch's consent to have the force of law, openly opposing the current trend of absolutism in Europe. The stage has been set for English Civil War.

    You'll see, Parliamentarians! I'll crush you like bugs!

    Actually, we have support from the navy and control over the port of London. And we're gonna pass the Self-Denying Ordinance so that we have a unified army led by Oliver Cromwell!

    Charles I envisions an easy victory, but underestimates Parliamentarian resources.

    The English Civil War between supporters of Parliament and supporters of the monarchy breaks out, but by 1648, Charles I emerges as the clear loser. As the government awkwardly reconvenes, Cromwell's military becomes angry with Parliament for not getting tougher on the losing king. In protest, "Pride's Purge" takes place, where 140 members of Parliament are thrown out, and the remaining "rump parliament" is forced to transform England into a republic with no House of Lords and no monarch (much in line with the ideas presented in John Lilburne's "London's Liberty in Chains").

    Lord Protector? Has a nice ring to it.

    Oliver Cromwell, the Parliamentarian military hero, becomes the first Lord Protector- head of both state and government- of the new Commonwealth. He is greatly respected by Parliament, but particularly by the military.

    The military makes another executive decision: To replace Richard with Charles II, and to replace the Commonwealth regime with a more traditional monarchy.

    Under Charles II, some improvements are made in the English justice system, but state-sponsored religious persecution of non-Anglicans also runs rampant.

    Hey, what about the Act of Habeas Corpus? Don't I get any cool points for that?

    When Charles dies in 1685, James II takes his place.

    James is incredibly tolerant of various religions, passing religiously liberal acts such as the Declaration of Liberty of Conscience. But since he is a Catholic himself, many see him as a defender of his own Nonconformist faith, and fear that he may be the beginning of a long line of Catholic rulers in England. The consensus is clear: He's got to go.

    Another one bites the dust...

    In 1688, the Glorious Revolution sweeps James from the throne and replaces him with joint rulers William of Orange and Mary II. This dynamic duo (husband and wife, but also first cousins) puts England back on the map as a constitutional monarchy, and it will stay that way for many centuries to come. Its days of republics and absolute monarchies are over. Though laws are passed to prevent Catholics from becoming monarchs under this new regime, a Bill of Rights is also passed, and a policy of religious tolerance is continued à la James.

    Does this crown make my head look fat?

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